Graffiti and litter lead to more street crime | New Scientist
Keizer says that the research is the first to explain and demonstrate experimentally the “broken windows theory”, but he adds that it would be a mistake to see it as vindication of “zero-tolerance” policies, like those deployed to clean up New York in the mid-1990s.
Zero-tolerance policies can be counterproductive, he says, because people simply see them as declaration of war and carry on offending.
Geraldine Pettersson, a consultant in London who co-authored a 2003 report on graffiti for the UK Department of Transport agreed. “You make it sound like a battle, and it becomes a challenge to them,” she says. “http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16096-graffiti-and-litter-lead-to-more-street-c rime/